Coconut Oil For Mange

Some natural cures turn out to be too good to be true, but coconut oil actually can help with dog dandruff. While demodicosis in cats and dogs is not thought to be pruritic, the rules are changing. Argan oil is great for seasoning cast iron skillets, and it can remove rust from cast iron pans that have not been been taken care of properly. 99 at aladis or any grocery store. After ghee, homemade yoghurt and coconut oil, turmeric is the latest health-food trend to originate from the south Asian pantry, another sign that the Indian subcontinent may be ahead of the hipster curve. It also promotes the quick regrowth of hair. It promotes a strong immune system, healthy skin, a shiny, problem free coat, strong healthy teeth, all the signs of a radiantly healthy dog. / 120C / Speed 2. The useful home remedies for demodectic mange include the use of hydrogen peroxide, borax, yogurt, honey, apple cider vinegar, olive oil, fish oil, lemon peels, aloe vera, neem oil, soap and water, and certain preventative practices, such as regularly cleaning your dog's bedding. Melaleuca Oils. Having said that, coconut oil is perfectly safe to use on your skin if you have Demodex mites since the mites do not feed on it. My question is can I pop the tiniest smidge of coconut oil on my piggies ear tip and gently rub it in? We use coconut oil on ourselves daily as a skin care. Olive oil is also helpful for relieving any inflammation or waxy build up that is caused by the mange. Simply dab some virgin coconut oil on the skin and leave it on. I hope that it will be the cure for her mange. Ear infections are the most common reason children are given antibiotics. com, Cannabis oil for cancer cure, buy cannabis oil online, where to buy rick simpson oil online, cannabis oil for curing cancer, how to cure cancer. Coconut oil is well known for being rich in health benefits for people, but this product is also highly beneficial for dogs and cats as well, and for pretty much all of the same reasons it's great for humans. Diluted tea tree oil 1% to 3% in coconut or olive oil applied sparingly to my Jack Russell's back after a bath while he is still half wet (he is a long hair/ soft coat type) repels fleas effectively for at least one week. Coconut Oil One of the best forms of treating Fordyce spots is using coconut oil which is a natural moisturizer. Ted's borax solution has been curing dogs of mange for over 15 years and is considered safe and effective for Demodectic and Sarcoptic Mange. Coconut oil is soothing for dry, itchy skin. Coconut oil has beneficial MCT fats that our brains love, increasing cognitive function. I had a quarter size spot of mange on my hand about a week after and i kept putting DE and coconut oil on it and it did rid it. Read what PubMed. Best home remedies for yeast infections are: Consume yogurt and garlic, clean affected parts with diluted tea tree wash or goldenseal, and apply clove oil. Parasites such as fleas, ticks, and mange are suffocated by the high-fat content of coconut oil, making it an all natural pest control and repellant. The oil has anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory qualities and is widely used on humans and animals by those who prefer to use Ayurvedic. In fact, it’s one for them to avoid if possible. The third coconut oil on our list is the CocoTherapy Organic Virgin Coconut Oil for Pets, which is a completely natural virgin oil created especially for pets, and primarily – dogs. While some dogs may also bene˛t from a FCO mist, the mist may make their coat more greasy in nature, which may not work well for household furniture. Having said that, coconut oil is perfectly safe to use on your skin if you have Demodex mites since the mites do not feed on it. Add the seeds, coconut, chia seeds, cacao powder, oats and salt to a food processor and pulse on high speed until coarsely crumbly. This article provides information about how to use clove oil for the treatment of scabies and also lists down the benefits of clove oil in management of this contagious and itchy rash. For 15 days, massage the affected areas with this oil and don't miss any applications. Rosemary oil uses and benefits include the potential power to stop the infestation of scabies. There are two types of mange and the mites that cause them. Understand What Mange in Dogs Is. Vegetable oils can also help get rid of the mites which provoke scabies. This article was first posted on March 25, 2014 on… Playful Kitty Takes the Pet Blogger Challenge - Playful Kitty - […] most popular blog post is Holistic Healing for Cats: Apple Cider Vinegar. All amounts are per weight. It is non toxic. Tabije and Juliana Q. Jerusalem artichokes. Coconut Oil For Bulldogs. Neem Shampoo With Neem, Coconut Oil and High Quality Essential Oils for a shiny, healthy and naturally fragranced coat. Another home remedy is apple cider vinegar oil. Weisberger on oil of oregano for scabies: If you have scabies you need to be treated with a topical scabicide such as 5% Permethrin cream applied from neck to toes and left on for 8-14 hours. Prevents the dry and itchy scalp. Add remaining oil to wok; stir-fry peppers for 2 minutes. Your dog may benefit from a bath with coconut oil if he has skin allergies, has had parasites such as mites or even fleas or ticks, or is dealing with seasonal dry, flaky skin. Coconut Oil is often used against skin mites because it contains lauric acid, a natural substance purported to fight bacteria and parasites. Pure coconut oil is a rather strange substance, because it is solid (like wax) until heated, when it turns into an oil like substance. How To Make Pure Coconut Oil Soap (For Cleansing And Laundry) Ingredients. I made it on a budget, with sunflower oil instead of the butter and coconut oil, and honey instead of maple syrup (As a Canadian, I am hanging my head in shame!). It may be used in repelling and managing numerous intestinal parasites and bugs including mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, and mange mites. Neem Oil As A Mosquito Repellant. It is a yellowish brown oil which has a bitter taste and a garlicky smell. I heard tea tree oil is very good to kill of demodex mites on dogs. Also known as arachis oil; earth-nut oil; katchung oil. Also, coconut oil promotes a smooth glossy coat and healthy, supple skin. Neem Shampoo With Neem, Coconut Oil and High Quality Essential Oils for a shiny, healthy and naturally fragranced coat. For a dog weighing 20 lbs or more, use 2 drops essential oil per teaspoon of coconut oil. If you cannot get hold of any coconut oil, you may replace it with olive oil, however the treatment will lose a bit of its potency as the lauric acid in coconut oil makes it a strong anti-bacterial in its own right. Coconut Oil for Pets has a light and fresh flavor that digests easily leaving no fishy or oily after taste. "Coconut oil or Copra oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera)" There is a process called Cold-pressed which has been the best way to get this oil from a mature and ripe coconut. These signs characterize mite-caused mange which many dog-owners manage successfully through the application of tea tree oil. Coconut oil has anti-fungal properties and will promote healing and regeneration of healthy skin cells. The reason coconut oil has been touted as heart-healthy (despite its fat makeup) is because of the suggestion that it can raise HDL ("good") cholesterol, and because of the type of saturated fats it contains: it's high in "medium chain triglycerides" while most other saturated fats found in plant-based oils have more "long chain triglycerides. Soothe Your Itchy Dog's Skin With These Natural Topical Remedies Neem and coconut oil have antiseptic, anti-fungal, and anti-bacterial properties that can heal skin irritation. Best home remedies for yeast infections are: Consume yogurt and garlic, clean affected parts with diluted tea tree wash or goldenseal, and apply clove oil. As a bonus, coconut oil can improve dog’s skin and coat, improves digestion, and reduces allergic reactions. You can administer coconut oil topically and orally, making it perfect for any occasion or issue. Prepare for some serious tail-wagging. The more recently identified Demodex species in cats — and dogs — Demodex gatoi, has a significantly. Coconut oil contains properties that may help treat dog ear infection, the medium-chain fatty acids include an antifungal property that kills the infection, it also has anti-inflammatory properties in case your dog has developed sores. My hair felt really clean and soft at the end of the wash. Killing Demodex Invitro (in the test tube) Note that carraway oil and dill weed oil are toxic to the eye. While you can get the same bacteria-fighting benefits with sesame or sunflower oil, coconut oil has the added benefit of lauric acid, which is well-known for its anti-microbial. Tea tree oil is a popular over-the-counter treatment thought to kill bacteria and fungi. I know that grapes are bad, but grape seed oild is in a lot of foods, and supplements for dogs. Is a treatment for hair thinning and hair loss. I tried olive oil yesterday on my cat,he had a matted bit of fur on his back. 25 Coconut Oil Benefits for Your Hair and Skin. Turmeric and milk is a fairly well-entrenched drink in the region’s food culture,. Here He Is 14 Months Later. Some owners have begun treating their dog's hot spots with coconut oil, rather than the traditional treatments used to address the condition. Coconut Oil for Skin Coconut oil was recognized for its effect on the skin when it was shown to kill mange, which don't survive well in oily environments. If your dog truly has mange which has been diagnosed by your Veterinarian then you would know that there are two different types of mites that cause. It kills parasites such as mange, fleas, and ticks which are suffocated by the fat content in the oil. You can also make it an essential part of your pet’s daily diet to boost his overall health and stamina. You will need to use a digital scale for these measurements. But US officials have finally given the green light for a U-turn on previous warnings, which means eggs, butter, full-fat dairy products, nuts, coconut oil and meat have now been classified as "safe" and have been officially removed from the "nutrients of concern" list. Wahls Veggie Protocol: Q&A. i’m not sure if it’s for a specific reason or if she’s sensitive, but a heads-up to anyone who might use this in the future that it’s possible your dog will react similarly. Sweet itch is a condition in horses caused by an allergic reaction to the bites of culicoides (or midges). Are Essential Oil Diffusers Safe Around Dogs? Having explored the essential oil safety issues around pets above, you can say that in general yes, the use of essential oil diffusers is safe around dogs. Also rub 1 part apple cider vinegar and 1 part water (diluted 50/50 mix) on the skin After the bath or anytime itching is apparent. The reason that you want to bathe your entire body is to prevent the mites from finding a safe haven from the neem oil and begin burrowing into a new area. The meat of the coconut is rich in calories and fat, and coconuts contain an electrolyte-rich water-based arrangement inside them that has become prominent lately as a dietary supplement. Our Topical Treatment Pack should be used in combination with Skin-eze herbal supplement capsules or tablets. 99 at aladis or any grocery store. There are two types of mange and the mites that cause them. Conditioners-The Poodle should have a coat conditioner applied to keep the hair soft, moist and tangle free. Skin-Eze Oil O3 is an all-natural product developed to heal skin and relieve itching in pets. I went outside on the patio where Max was and rubbed the coconut oil onto his mangy spots. It promotes a strong immune system, healthy skin, a shiny, problem free coat, strong healthy teeth, all the signs of a radiantly healthy dog. one part tea tree oil (distilled essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia leaf); one part neem oil (expressed oil from Azadirachta indica fruit); and, two parts water. The antimicrobial effects of coconut oil may prevent dogs from being infected by ectoparasites, such as ticks, fleas and mange mites. Order cannabis oil for cancer treatment, https://mariguanaheadshop. Miracoli helps you prepare a delicious pasta dish with carbonara sauce easily and quickly for your enjoyment ! Each pouch contains 150 gr. Is this normal for cats?. Check it out here: Dr. The coconut oil will begin to soak into the skin immediately, and do its work, while the oil your cat licks off will give it some internal benefits. Coconut Oil for Skin Treatments Here's our lowdown on using coconut oil for skin treatments - and why we think it's among the very best of nature's ingredients. How to Make a Homemade Dog Shampoo Bar Soap. Topical Herbal Remedies for Canine Mange. I need to know how much oil to dilute with water. Ted's borax solution has been curing dogs of mange for over 15 years and is considered safe and effective for Demodectic and Sarcoptic Mange. As the name suggests, it comes from India, and it is one of the most highly revered medicinal oils in Ayurvedic medicine. date for ear mites or mange coconut oil. Neem Shampoo With Neem, Coconut Oil and High Quality Essential Oils for a shiny, healthy and naturally fragranced coat. Check it out here: Dr. While it’s a staple in vegan desserts, you certainly don’t have to follow a special diet to work this fragrant oil into your cakes, cookies, and muffins. Coconut oil provides fewer ketones, but they last up to eight hours. That’s why it gets tricky and each serving of the prepared recipe needs to take into account the total of all ingredients used. Is this normal for cats?. You may also use a and mist your dog before you go out on a walk. *Try :Coconut oil which is anticandida and antimicrobial (Great for topical or internal). Coconut oil applied to the affected skin daily. As a bonus, coconut oil can improve dog’s skin and coat, improves digestion, and reduces allergic reactions. Essential oils and water don't mix. The main ingredient of Scabnil Oleo is karanj oil which is a powerful anti-fungal agent. When you need to keep coats clean and free of tangles, choose from these dog shampoo and conditioner products - some specially formulated to combat grease, brighten coats and have your pet smelling great. However, some pups may experience an allergic reaction to coconut oil. How to Treat Sweet Itch in Horses. It is also inexpensive to buy and. 2 teaspoons curry powder. You should look up some of those articles she mentions, they’re good resources. But I’m afraid to poison my pets with it. Tagged ways to use coconut oil beauty, ways to use coconut oil for acne, ways to use coconut oil for hair, ways to use coconut oil for skin, ways to use coconut oil for weight loss, ways to use coconut oil on face Leave a Comment on Gluten Free Eating - What is Inulin and Why is it in My Bread? Posts navigation. In the literature, fatty acid supplements made from fish oil were effective in reducing symptoms of itching and inflammation in 11 to 27 percent of allergic dogs and over 50 percent of allergic cats. EFFICACY OF VIRGIN COCONUT (Cocos nucifera ) OILSOAP AGAINST MANGE IN DOGS Gregory B. When it is applied to your dog's skin, it will suffocate any adult mange, larvae, and eggs present in your dog's skin. Think out of the box and try something like vanilla cinnamon cashew milk. If your dog truly has mange which has been diagnosed by your Veterinarian then you would know that there are two different types of mites that cause. However, only about 15-20% of the fats in coconut oil are true MCTs, and the effects of the most prevalent, lauric acid, on cholesterol are the subject of debate. Hair Dryer, Herbal Parasite Cleanse and Hydrogen Peroxide for Athlete's Foot remedies. 500ml (2 cups) coconut milk 250ml (1 cup) water 30ml (2 tbsp) vegetable oil 225g (½ lb) peas 170g (6 oz) snow peas [mange tout, washed] salt and pepper (to taste). Ghee is a great food source of fat-soluble A, D, and K2. almond oil). Natural Coco Oil (NCO) is a naturally processed product from fresh coconut meat or its derivative (coconut milk and milk residue). Instant Pot Coconut Rice Pudding can be enjoyed cold, hot or warm. It's antibacterial so it will kill the mites as well as moisturize and nourish the skin. Simply add 5-10 drops of Lavender oil to your dogs shampoo and shake. Please be informed that the quality of the oil you are giving to your dog is very good, i. If your dog has mange, apply yarrow oil, ointment, or salve to the affected areas. I apply it at night, right after washing my face, and then apply extra virgin coconut oil over top of it after waiting 5-10 minutes. Neem oil is a harmless external remedy for demodex mites and it does not have any adverse effects on the eyes. Also, the first step when your dog has mange is to isolate him or her to prevent the condition from spreading to other pets and humans. Its anti fungal, anti microbial, anti viral! its a miracle in a jar. I do it twice a day. It can trash an immune system badly enough for mange to develop in the first place and it can also trigger a treatment setback. 1 The petroleum industry is first encountered in the archaeological record near Hit in what is now Iraq. It is super effective to deal with the infection of mites and soothe the irritation your dog has to suffer from daily. One of the most common that comes up is coconut oil for dogs. A natural flea treatment for dogs, that will also repel mites (including mange), ticks, lice and flies. Learn how to use neem in dogs: treating mange, fleas or ticks with neem dog shampoo and making neem oil spray for your dog. Then put in 1 tsp Boric powder in it and then kerosene oil and cool the mixture. 99 at aladis or any grocery store. Skin-Eze Oil O3 is an all-natural product developed to heal skin and relieve itching in pets. But coconut oil is costly. Also, just like coconut oil, it contains fat-burning MCTs. Lavender oil is an essential oil, distilled from the flower spikes or leaves of lavender. Try coconut oil. “We began using the oil in our products because we feel that pets should be benefiting from this magnificent oil as much as humans are. Mix in the asparagus, mange-tout, carrots and spring onions; cook for 3 minutes. Coconut oil is very big in human nutrition right now, but it isn't a good choice for pets. Vegetable oil is the sticky nature that helps cut off the air supply of the mite and even kill them. What you will appreciate about this oil is Lauric acid is present in it. ) Don't breed dogs with generalized chronic mange since the condition may be passed to their offspring. com Redirecting. It contains a good combination of borage oil, flaxseed oil, fish oil, and Vitamin E. Instead of using tea directly on your face, mix it with a carrier oil or some skin/hair products. Lavender is a soothing anti-histamine, tea tree oil repels, and copaiba is an anti-inflammatory that also kills skin parasites. It reminds me of nut butter, but with a slight coconut flavour. I have friends who swear by coconut oil for everything external - for themselves & their pets. The proprietary formulation penetrates the infected areas, destroys the burrowing mite infestation, and delivers natural healing properties to the infected epidermal skin layer. Coconut oil can be used as a natural topical lotion for especially itchy, dry or damaged skin, we use virgin coconut oil mixed with pure lavender essential oil. after her bath yesterday, the patches have gone progressively RED. Run on high speed until entirely smooth and sticky. Coconut oil may be a useful alternative in pets that do not tolerate fish oil, who smell bad with fish oil use, or whose owners would like a nice smelling "natural" topical therapy. She's having bath every day and I'm using sulfur soap now on her. Coconut oil is not only great for the skin, but it is especially effective when used to kill mange because mange doesn't do well in oily environments. Adjust heat to low. Not all essential oils are good for dogs, so only use one that is veterinary recommended as dog-safe and in a. Coconut Oil For Gastritis Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach wall. If coconut oil has a regular place in your pantry, you may already know what a treat it can be to bake with. Two drops of tea tree oil to about two tablespoons of coconut oil or half a cup of olive oil should make it safe for most dogs. Coconut Oil for Skin Coconut oil was recognized for its effect on the skin when it was shown to kill mange, which don't survive well in oily environments. hope this helps other. EFFICACY OF VIRGIN COCONUT (Cocos nucifera ) OILSOAP AGAINST MANGE IN DOGS Gregory B. You can use between 10 to 20% neem oil in a blend. There is demodex which is caused by stress, an immune system that is repressed, an illness, etc. Coconut oil and Tea Tree Oil mixed has really helped the row of scabies bites down my spine (I think its drying them up - face is looking better). Dandelion leaves Dates. Kale (curly) Kidney beans (cooked only) Kiwi (small amounts, without skin) Leek * (small amount) Lettuce (in moderation) Mange tout Mango. Browse your favorite brands affordable prices free shipping on many items. It contains Lauric acid and Caprylic acid, which both help prevent Candida overgrowth and strengthen your immune system. But we also aren’t quite sure whether or not it affects heart disease and weight management … and for that reason it’s best to drink this higher-fat alternative in moderation. Two drops of tea tree oil to about two tablespoons of coconut oil or half a cup of olive oil should make it safe for most dogs. Some cat owners even tout coconut oil as a flea treatment. You should also try to apply coconut oil to your dog’s coat. Coconut oil has lauric acid, which is an antimicrobial fatty acid. This is one of my favorite natural treatments for mange because it works very well, is very easy to do and is safe for my pet if they decide to lick the oil off. Neem oil when applied intermittently over the week results in growing healthy hair and scalp. Coconut Oil. Tag Archives: NG Loving Spell Fragrance Oil. Tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca oil, is produced from freshly harvested leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, or the tea tree, which grows in Portugal, Spain and Australia, as well as Florida and other parts of the southern United States. Wondering how treat skin issues holistically? Check out what we use coconut oil for! I've used this with our other dogs and it works wonders!. Some basic ingredients commonly used in homemade dog shampoo are castile soap, lavender essential oil (to help combat fleas), coconut oil (to moisturize), distilled white vinegar (to remove smells) and rosemary (to moisturize). It also clears up skin rashes leaving the skin in good health. I had a quarter size spot of mange on my hand about a week after and i kept putting DE and coconut oil on it and it did rid it. We left Tenor at a dog boarding kennel last weekend, while we went out of town for a wedding. Nu-Stock is 73% sulfur, 25% mineral oil, 2% pine oil, so don't use it straight out of the tube. Essential Oil for Mange and Mites In case you prefer natural herbs or essential oils in treating mange in your Bulldog, here’s something that you can try. Magnesium Oil with MSM (Methylsulphonylmethane) Boron and Turmeric: 250mL: $23: Pain-Aid Xtra (Spray) Magnesium Oil with MSM (Methylsulphonylmethane) Boron and Turmeric: 500mL: $32: Pain-Aid Xtra (Spray) Magnesium Oil with MSM (Methylsulphonylmethane) Boron and Turmeric: 1L: $45: Disinfectant. 3 to 4 coconuts will give you 1 litre of coconut milk, from which 50 grams of oil can be extracted. 1 teaspoon sugar. Conditioners-The Poodle should have a coat conditioner applied to keep the hair soft, moist and tangle free. Mix in the asparagus, mange-tout, carrots and spring onions; cook for 3 minutes. My old english bulldog has had demodex mites for a while now. Adjust heat to low. If you don’t have a spiraliser, cut the courgettes lengthways as thinly as possible, then across into very fine strands. Butter, margarine, hair grease, fat meat grease, safflower oil, corn oil, baby oil, mineral oil, castor oil, soybean oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil will smother insects. 50 grams mange tout (optional) 15 grams thai basil. Some cat owners even tout coconut oil as a flea treatment. and people of course. When using neem oil, dilute it with base oils like olive, avocado, sesame oil, or jojoba oil. Harvey's Health and Shine. It can trash an immune system badly enough for mange to develop in the first place and it can also trigger a treatment setback. Coconut oil is extracted from mature coconuts and takes the form of an edible oil that is used in food and beauty products. I need to know how much oil to dilute with water. Think out of the box and try something like vanilla cinnamon cashew milk. Simply apply it directly to your dog’s skin, or make a treatment of 10 drops of oil to a bowl of warm water. Coconut oil can also be liquefied by heating it up and applying it on the skin or special moisturizing sprays can help keep the skin from getting too dry. It can trash an immune system badly enough for mange to develop in the first place and it can also trigger a treatment setback. While virgin coconut oil is 90% saturated fat, w hen added to a dog’s diet in small quantities, on a daily basis virgin coconut oil has many beneficial qualities. Tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca oil, is produced from freshly harvested leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, or the tea tree, which grows in Portugal, Spain and Australia, as well as Florida and other parts of the southern United States. Although saturated fat has received a very bad rap it is well worth taking a second look at coconut oil as a nutritional supplement for your dog’s diet. fÅ dit daglige coconut oil boost for kun 3,- kr. "Coconut oil or Copra oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera)" There is a process called Cold-pressed which has been the best way to get this oil from a mature and ripe coconut. At that point we had been traveling in. Viste, Rosenio C. Fish Oil In Capsule Form: The best place to buy fish oil supplements online would be somewhere simple like Amazon but if you are looking to buy them local I would just any health food store or a pet store. When they are present on humans, the mites can cause skin conditions such as rosacea. 4 Ways Your Brows Are Aging You—And Easy Tricks To Fix Them. Neem oil is very useful in caring for plants, for pets, and even for humans. Check it out here: Dr. Then I found YOU Dr. Using Coconut Oil. One of the most common causes of skin irritation and scratching in dogs is fleas. However, some pups may experience an allergic reaction to coconut oil. Alaso flax seed/oil is a vegetarian source of omega 3s (if using flax seed, grind before serving). An hour after her owner applied coconut oil to the sting and gave her a tablespoon to swallow, the swelling disappeared and the dog was herself again. Prevents the dry and itchy scalp. I mix 4 tsp of coconut oil and tsp of Tea Trea Oil in a small bowl. Guide la m thode je mange, je mincis download now •. Coconut oil is sometimes applied to the skin as a moisturizer, for neonatal health, and to treat eczema and a skin condition called psoriasis. sarcoptic mange; Sarcoptic mange is an infection that is caused by Sarcoptes scabei mites leading not only to inflammation but extreme itching as well – which can be commonly mistaken as an allergic reaction instead. Also, the first step when your dog has mange is to isolate him or her to prevent the condition from spreading to other pets and humans. Served with coconut shrimp and an. A very good natural product that I have found is Dr. The purpose of this web site is NOT to sell treatments for the human demodex mite. Coconut Oil. Luckily, there are plenty of home remedies for mange in cats which you can take advantage of if your pet has issues with its fur. I plan to. Just massage it into the pet's skin, let it sit in for a while and then wash. Coconut Oil For Mange.