Why Were Witches Burned

Nothing is certain in Fox's. In the early modern period, an era of social change and religious turmoil, women stood at the epicenter of witch-hunts. According to witch-hunters during the height of the witch trials, a witches' mark (also called a Devil's mark or a witches' teat) was sufficient indication that an individual was a witch. The vast majority of the accused were men. "They were attacked and burnt to death by a mob of villagers who accused them of engaging in witchcraft," the police. Drowning them in a "witches chair" to interior of inches of their lives to get them to "admit to being a witch" (clone of the Spanish inquisition). The American colonists thought of themselves as citizens of Great Britain and subjects of King George III. Witches were never burned in England, for example; the punishment was hanging. In medieval times cats were tortured and killed during the 'Cat fair' in many West European places. A group of 50 or so of the dead boy's relatives apprehended the young mother, stripped her, tortured her and burned her alive in the settlement's landfill, just outside the city of Mount Hagen. of the 19 people hanged for witchcraft, five were men and 14 were women. And to this day, the town remembers. The Witch Trials spread to 34 towns and villages in all. Afterwards, only witches (which may despawn) will spawn in the 7×9×7 area that is the witch hut. For most of the year, the cork-like strips that form the outer ridge of this plant's branches are its chief selling point. Most of the Spanish witches who were burned died earlier by being poisoned by the priests. How were witches executed? A. You can find it in hemorrhoid creams, pads, suppositories and tinctures. The Catholic Church wanted to purify the witch's soul and believed burning them alive would do the trick. Instead, their treatment at the hands of men, and the rationales used by those men indicate that the oppression of witches was somehow symbolic of the oppression of women in general , of women's sexuality, and of sexuality. Witch Trials: 4 Real Medical Illnesses That Were Mistaken For Witchcraft And The Devil Oct 19, 2016 12:52 PM By Elana Glowatz @ElanaGlow When authorities burned accused witches at the stake throughout history, they often thought they were performing their own version of defense against the dark arts. Entire villages have burned to the ground in Afghanistan, white phosphorus has been dropped on Palestinian children in Gaza, and talks of a strike on Iran may very well. It even helps reduce swelling or irritated skin from razor burn after shaving. As years passed, apologies were offered and restitution was made to the victims' families. The Crucible: She's a Witch! Burn Her! True or False What were Abigail and Betty doing with Why does Giles Cory believe the witch accusations are happening. The threats of violence and imprisonment being leveled against Hillary Clinton are eerily reminiscent of 16 th century European “Burning Times” when hundreds of thousands of women were burned at the stake. Why were witches burnt on a cross? I'm doing a report on religion in reference to the European witch trials, and I thought I would include a reason of why witches were burnt on a cross most of the time, but all i'm finding is lyrics to songs like, the witch is burning. I would burn all of them. This is a slow-burning and deeply absorbing piece of filmmaking, full of strikingly beautiful images and driven less by shocks than ideas. Dependable Doctor answers tailored to you: If your anus gradually burns after pooping, Dr. First, a quick breakdown of what happens at the end of Blair Witch. The prisoner would name women, men, anyone they thought the executioner would like to hear. The Salem witch trials of 1692 were protracted, grueling affairs, and by the time they were concluded in October of that year, 150 people had been arrested, of whom 31 were tried and 20 were put to death. But Always A Witch, a Colombian series developed by. I hope you'll agree that it's worthy of a wider audience. The prisoner would name women, men, anyone they thought the executioner would like to hear. Men were also accused of the practice, and one man, who refused to admit that he was a witch, was crushed to death for his punishment. have worn a faggot worked in his coat, to be a mark of infamy and suspicion as long as he lived. Witches weren't burned because they wanted to be, they were burned to protect the community. in the middle ages they were burnt cause the towns people didn't trust them and thought they were abominations. Burning people alive was forbade by English law at the time of the Salem witch trials, so no "witches" actually burned at the stake. No Witches Were Burned During the Salem Witch Trials. The lyrics were reportedly finished a couple of years later and snippets were teased during 2006 and 2008 Radiohead concerts. yes i do believe in them, actually if i look into my history i am half shaman and half midwife (midwives were used to be how they called witches witches). Most Scottish witches were tried in such courts. Over the period of 10 months 165 people were accused of being a witch in Salem, and 31 were imprisoned. By Mitch Horowitz. Why Mostly Women Were Executed Although men were also accused of witchcraft, about 75-80 percent of those executed during the witch hunts were women. The 20-year-old mother was burned to. The tendency of society to target women on accusations of witchcraft is not unique to the Europeans caught in the craze of the European witch-hunts. This was central to their beliefs. Dulcino of Novara, the successor to the founder, was publicly torn to pieces with hooks, as was his wife. Most people were not bothered by losing the people executed, as they were mostly social outcasts. Czechs used to believe that the power of witches would weaken as the weather got warmer. Medieval execution was a clear message to all potential criminals, law breakers, rebels and enemies that law is simple and final and disobedience will not be tolerated. This was not true - they were hanged. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Its a sad truth, but I do give some encouraging words in my book, "7 Types of Queens. The Catholic Church wanted to purify the witch's soul and believed burning them alive would do the trick. 20 were implicated and executed - nearly all by hanging – 14 of whom were women. But witches were burned in city parks, on city streets and in private backyards. In January 1692, a group of young girls in Salem Village, Massachusetts became consumed by disturbing "fits. The practice then enjoyed a long period of fervent approval as a method for dealing with heretics, witches and other sorts of people, but if you thought it was just a medieval practice, you’d be wrong. Witches Were Burned at the Stake in Salem Although there really were witch trials in Salem , Massachusetts, in 1692, and 20 people were put to death, none of the accused were burned at the stake. The threats of violence and imprisonment being leveled against Hillary Clinton are eerily reminiscent of 16 th century European “Burning Times” when hundreds of thousands of women were burned at the stake. Salem was ruled by English law at the time, which only allowed death by burning to be used against men who committed high treason and only after they had been hanged, quartered and. As such, they chose to burn the so-called "witches" alive in order to save them. In Colonial America, those found "guilty" of witchcraft were usually hanged, however a person thought to be a witch and who was subsequently convicted as such were far better off than those in Europe who were burned at the stake while the whole village watched. This is an updated version of a story I wrote back in 2007 and have been teaching in my pharmacology classes since 1992. it was deemed the work of witches. Despite its small population, Scotland holds the reputation of having been Europe's biggest persecutor of witches. Over the period of 10 months 165 people were accused of being a witch in Salem, and 31 were imprisoned. Why were witches burnt on a cross? I'm doing a report on religion in reference to the European witch trials, and I thought I would include a reason of why witches were burnt on a cross most of the time, but all i'm finding is lyrics to songs like, the witch is burning. We cut back to the remnants of the Witch-Burning, where the burned-out husk that once was Myrtle Snow lay. Hangings were much more cost-effective and efficient. The historic pages of a 350-year-old book used to record the names of those accused of witchcraft in Scotland have been published online for the first time. Many of the accused witches were apart of the Indian wars like George Burroughs. Another reason why people burned witches was because women were believed to be evil and sinful in nature and that they were the cause for the fall of man. ” – Luna, 34. The only analog that can be used is the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937. Why you're seeing this ad. As if in response to the question “What would you do if you had a multi-million dollar video budget and were working with QUEEN OF BURNING THE WITCHES Why 'Toy Story 4' Character Forky. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for The Agrokinetic (The Day 12 Witches Burned) at Amazon. Male witches. The Catholic Church wanted to purify the witch's soul and believed burning them alive would do the trick. The threats of violence and imprisonment being leveled against Hillary Clinton are eerily reminiscent of 16 th century European “Burning Times” when hundreds of thousands of women were burned at the stake. They used to burn witches at the stake. The origins of this song date back to 2003's Hail To The Thief when the phrase "burn the witch" appeared in the cover art of that album's booklet. Best-selling author Erica Jong has provided a new introduction to her acclaimed exploration of the world of witchcraft, in which she combines fact and fantasy in beguiling poetry and prose. Was it the fact that, through my studies, I’d learned that over 100,000 people (almost 90% of whom were women) were accused of witchcraft and murdered across the world during the Burning Times. Both male Witches and female Witches, and people who were accused of being Witches (for a variety of reasons) where considered by the Catholics and Protestants to be heretics. In Ritual we use things like dirt, stones, wood, herbs and leaves to represent the element earth. Usually carried out in a public context, the burning of books represents an element of censorship and usually proceeds from a cultural, religious, or political opposition to the materials in question. Red hair was apparently a sign of witchcraft in Christian Europe and it's said that it was often seen as a marker of guilt in the eyes of witch finders. Cleary often. This is an updated version of a story I wrote back in 2007 and have been teaching in my pharmacology classes since 1992. Burning people alive was forbade by English law at the time of the Salem witch trials, so no "witches" actually burned at the stake. The next documented burning took place on 17 July 1537 when Janet Douglas, Lady Glamis, was put to death on Castle Hill, Edinburgh, having been convicted of conspiring to poison King James V. As a kitchen witch, my tools are simple: I cleansed everything in his house. Hester Jonas, known as The Witch of. England executed significantly less than 1,000 during the main period of the witch craze, and Ireland just 4, due in part to better procedural safeguards for defendants in those countries. That was the fate of the women and men sentenced to death for the crime of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts. How the Germans went crazy for witch hunts. Though witch hunts were common in Europe hundreds of years ago, the practice still occurs in India, Africa and South America. Kitchen witches use a variety of tools to cleanse spaces, from herbal techniques to good old brooms. Federici, p208 wrote: 3. The Burning Times. By Mitch Horowitz. Most people persecuted as witches were pagans or people that were suggested by accused witches to be witches. Burning people alive was forbade by English law at the time of the Salem witch trials, so no "witches" actually burned at the stake. A number of bystanders were uniformed police officers who helped turn back a fire engine when it whined to the scene. England executed significantly less than 1,000 during the main period of the witch craze, and Ireland just 4, due in part to better procedural safeguards for defendants in those countries. Many of the accused witches were apart of the Indian wars like George Burroughs. " At nightfall, the organs were burned in a huge fire built nearby, with a quart of coal used to ensure maximum heat. It begins with a young American woman named Dani, played by. But why were Germans and their neighboring regions so much more spooked about witches than other Europeans in the first place? How the modern witch was made Before the 1400s, Europeans generally. Eventually. Most cases were tried in secular courts, and execution was usually by public hanging or burning. No Women Were Burned At The Salem Witch Trials And I For Suuuuure Thought They Were History was never my strong suit. (WNCT) Vidant Health announced on Monday that it has received new national awards for its expertise in treating patients with stroke and heart failure. (Like when a man has sex with his wife and mother-in-law, the daughter of a priest behaves like a whore, or someone touches the accursed thing. Facts + Statistics: Wildfires. Also check out the work of the amazing Lisa Lister and her latest book Witch: Unleashed. With the exception of one witch, they were all hanged by the neck until dead or died while in prison. The cup does not burn because the water inside cools it. Mercy Eventually confessed that they were all lies and this was a sport between the girls. And if witch hunting continued unabated, he warned, the land would become empty!. After consultation with a "White Witch", the bodies of the dead animals were dug up and the heart of each removed. Jan 07, 2018 · The persecution of witches came down to a battle for the 'market share' of post-Reformation Christians, according to a paper by two economists Why Europe's wars of religion put 40,000. At 11/9/12 08:54 AM, Shaun wrote: Serious question, were people that were persecuted as witches really just lesbians? seems legit. These killers would then be assured of a place in heaven because they'd been responsible for either saving a soul or killing a witch. That misguided stereotype is why witches are still depicted with black cats to this day. Witches were thrown into a river or lake, tied to a stone, and if they drowned then they were innocent, but if they floated they were guilty and would then be burned at the stake. in the adventure that they admitted it they were burned on the stake. The regional tolls demonstrated the patchwork pattern of witch-hunting. (This posed a conundrum to the Channel island of Guernsey when three witches turned up there in 1617. Burned at the Stake. But what caused the craze for burning witches, and why did it stop? If you're offered a trick or treat on Halloween, it's quite likely to be by someone dressed as a witch. Later after the medieval period and during the 16th and 17th centuries, witch-hunting became widespread in Europe and the women who were found "guilty" of being a witch were burned at the stake. If you have any of these fireworks, do not use them and return. Keep a spray bottle of it cold in the fridge for cooling relief for a sunburn. First of all, I’m excited that you’re doing this on “Salem” of all things! Nice to see interest in that. Inquisition established its headquarters in Toulouse and hundreds of Cathars were burned at the stake. She was executed 30 December 1663. The torture of witches is the various acts of torment and persecution used against the accused during the witch-trials in Early Modern Europe. But ultimately, we need to face the gender difference that women are, at least today in Western society, more superstitious than men. There was no way to save them and she cried out to God to help them. Sept 20, 2008 7:11 AM. And so many women were persecuted not just for practicing folk medicine and paganism but for just being women. However torture was not used in England and after 1594 it was not used in Holland, (which is probably one reason why there were fewer executions for witchcraft there). And if witch hunting continued unabated, he warned, the land would become empty!. Even if he were born in Taqila, the Federation without a doubt would have tried to bring him in, and he might even had the same status as a high ranked witch. Normally, witches were decapitated or hanged to death before their bodies were burned at the stake (which was Anna Simonsdotter Hack's fate), but it appears Malin's refusal to admit to her guilt. Why were witches burnt on a cross? I'm doing a report on religion in reference to the European witch trials, and I thought I would include a reason of why witches were burnt on a cross most of the time, but all i'm finding is lyrics to songs like, the witch is burning. The origins of this song date back to 2003's Hail To The Thief when the phrase "burn the witch" appeared in the cover art of that album's booklet. England executed significantly less than 1,000 during the main period of the witch craze, and Ireland just 4, due in part to better procedural safeguards for defendants in those countries. Witch trials didn’t just occur in Massachusetts. The witches were accused of bringing supernatural and evil forces into the world. Burned at the Stake. after this point, the witch hunts were well under way, and would continue until the early 17th century. Pan of scared Puritans, one. ( Public Domain ). (Like when a man has sex with his wife and mother-in-law, the daughter of a priest behaves like a whore, or someone touches the accursed thing. How they came to be associated with the household objects is a murky tale. 10 Brutal Witch Trials Focused On Children. Children against parents. Nothing is certain in Fox's. BURN THE WITCH is a one-shot by Tite Kubo released in the July 16th, 2018 edition of Shonen Jump, detailing a day in the lives of two witches working for the Western Branch of Soul Society, located in Reverse London. The Site of the Salem Witch Trial Hangings Finally Has a Memorial In a town that has long profited from witchcraft-seekers and Halloween revelers alike, a new memorial strikes a different tone. Most shameful, horrible, and damaging things, how she caused mischief and harm to animals and people. It has lost only once since. However, after John Calvin had arrived, more than 500 people convicted of witchcraft were executed during a period of only two years. ” Or 100,000 of them. The tendency of society to target women on accusations of witchcraft is not unique to the Europeans caught in the craze of the European witch-hunts. He serves as Town Archivist for Danvers (formerly Salem Village), Massachusetts, where he is custodian of all early town records, the Brehaut Witchcraft Collection, and tens of thousands of manuscripts. Directed by Jeremy Podeswa. (Jenny Starrs/The Washington Post). Top Places in Italy. Afterwards, only witches (which may despawn) will spawn in the 7×9×7 area that is the witch hut. Witches are often shown riding broomsticks. Njoroge Ndirangu says the mob used a list Tuesday night and Wednesday morning to hunt down people they said were suspected witches and wizards. Debra As the witches were and Curtens was 16 years old by the time that she and Olmans were burned at the stake on. The video is a comment on. The malefactors were hanged. You can find it in hemorrhoid creams, pads, suppositories and tinctures. In Bug Spray. Appearance. Why were witches burnt on a cross? I'm doing a report on religion in reference to the European witch trials, and I thought I would include a reason of why witches were burnt on a cross most of the time, but all i'm finding is lyrics to songs like, the witch is burning. These killers would then be assured of a place in heaven because they'd been responsible for either saving a soul or killing a witch. You may have seen the camping trick of boiling water in a paper cup. Second Witch Fillet of a fenny snake,. in the adventure that they did not confess they persisted the torture until eventually they were useless. The Salem "Witches" Were Burned In February 1692, an investigation was launched into alleged witchcraft among citizens in colonial Massachusetts. burn someone at the stake. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. There were multiple phases, with the first ending in the burning of 12 convicted witches. 17 Signs That You'd Qualify as a Witch in 1692. A more likely origin for the burning in water idea though is a second method to find witches. 3 to support his team. Bible verses about Burning Candles. It’s a common myth that the Salem Witch Trials victims were burned at the stake. The practice then enjoyed a long period of fervent approval as a method for dealing with heretics, witches and other sorts of people, but if you thought it was just a medieval practice, you’d be wrong. It said in 2016, 277 kilometres of road was constructed, 345km was rehabilitated and 17,749 people were employed in the process. The house burned down mysteriously and only the fireplace and chimney are left standing. Why should a witch's kitchen be animal free? Surely it should be full of "eye of newt", "toe of frog," and other such gruesome ingredients. Salem’s witch trials were a memory by the time artist Thomas Satterwhite Noble painted “The Salem Martyr” in 1869. Sometimes, you might find that you have direct ancestors in both groups. WITCHES IN DREAMS:Understanding dreams is not so difficult. And why were so many innocent people were killed in Salem when they were or accused of being witches. Burned at Castle Hill (for being a member of a coven of eight women and four men, and for receiving herbs from the Queen of the Faeries) (Source: Robbins, Encyclopedia, 455). Rossell Hope Robbins emphasizes the severity of the witchcraft persecutions in Germany by listing typical atrocities. The following month, five more people were hanged. It's a common myth that the Salem Witch Trials victims were burned at the stake. Burn Lyrics: I saved every letter you wrote me / From the moment I read them / I knew you were mine / You said you were mine / I thought you were mine / Do you know what Angelica said / When we. The book by Lamothe-Langon called "Histoire de l'Inquisition en France" responsible for many of the overestimations of inquisition related witch deaths in southern France was a forgery. By the time the colonies were set up, English law forbade burning people alive, which meant that no witches could be burned in the American colonies as a result of the trials. Out of 150 people arrested, 19 were put to death for the felony of being a witch. Witch Burning in the Fourteenth Century Was Completely Pointless — discuss was the name of a summer essay Professor Cuthbert Binns assigned his upcoming third year students in 1993. The Inquisition's long survival can be attributed to the early inclusion of offenses other than heresy: sorcery, alchemy, blasphemy, sexual aberration, and infanticide. A more likely origin for the burning in water idea though is a second method to find witches. Women found themselves victims of cruel and unjustified acts of persecution, such as being tortured and burned at the stake, because they were labeled “witches” by the society. Culture : Kenyan Villagers' Suspicions, Fears Spark Deadly Witch Hunt : Evil lurks beneath the tranquil facade of two highland districts, where vigilantes have burned to death 44 men and women. The Catholic Church wanted to purify the witch's soul and believed burning them alive would do the trick. " He, therefore, threw after him his famous ink-bottle!. How many people were burned at the Stake in America? Why? "Lords Prayer" they thought witches were not able to quote the prayer. In some cases, the clergy were genuinely concerned about the souls of those they were executing. Why is referring european witch hunts as the "burning times" inaccurate Get the answers you need, now! european witch hunts as the "burning times. Later after the medieval period and during the 16th and 17th centuries, witch-hunting became widespread in Europe and the women who were found "guilty" of being a witch were burned at the stake. The book by Lamothe-Langon called "Histoire de l'Inquisition en France" responsible for many of the overestimations of inquisition related witch deaths in southern France was a forgery. Why Mostly Women Were Executed Although men were also accused of witchcraft, about 75-80 percent of those executed during the witch hunts were women. Belief in magic and witchcraft has been around since the beginning of time. Prosecutors in the American colonies generally preferred hanging in cases of witchcraft. FACT: While indeed governments did burn many witches at the stake, most were executed by other means. Second, burning a witch?? In Lisle?? Imagine how many people you could offend now days! And Why couldn't we burn a "male warlock" huh?? Jerry Springer could have a whole panel of offended witches on his show. Nonetheless,. At Wolfenbuttenl in 1593 as many as ten witches were often burned in one day. Why were witches hanged in the gallows instead of being burnt at the stake in times of Salem (17th century)? In The Crucible by Arthur Miller the women accused of witchcraft were hanged and the. They were also believed to be more moved by the Devil. Male and Female were tried and convicted however, females seemed to garner more attention because they were more prevalent and accused more by other women. Witch persecutions often occurred in areas where Catholics and Protestants were fighting. Dependable Doctor answers tailored to you: If your anus gradually burns after pooping, Dr. Being accused of witchcraft is problematic at the best of times, but in the 1500s and 1600s -- at the height of the witch hysteria, it was downright deadly. Marija Gimbutas, professor of archaeology at the University of California, that as many as 9 million people, overwhelmingly women, were burned or hanged during the witch-craze. When a witch gets hit a player, they begin to viciously attack them with splash potions. I mean yeah witches arent real but they didnt know that- if they were real the trials would have been 110000 percent justified and hey who knows maybe they were real?. The Witches of Warboys were Alice Samuel and her family, who were accused of, and executed for witchcraft between 1589 and 1593 in the village of Warboys, in the fens of England. The torture of witches is the various acts of torment and persecution used against the accused during the witch-trials in Early Modern Europe. There are some interesting medical papers that attribute some of the behaviors from infection or over exposure to rye ergot, or ergotomine poisoning. The first step on how to treat hemorrhoids with Witch Hazel is to acquire the herbal concoction from drugs stores or you can extract them by grinding the leaves and bark of the Witch Hazel plant, sieve it and mix with water. Entire villages have burned to the ground in Afghanistan, white phosphorus has been dropped on Palestinian children in Gaza, and talks of a strike on Iran may very well. Child-Sacrifice among European Witches. As if in response to the question “What would you do if you had a multi-million dollar video budget and were working with QUEEN OF BURNING THE WITCHES Why 'Toy Story 4' Character Forky. Across the 17th and 18th centuries, it is known more than 3800 suspected witches were strangled, hanged, drowned or burned at the stake. In some cases of burning at the stake, mechanisms were provided to shorten the victim's suffering. In Oxford's St Giles there is a huge Victorian memorial to the Oxford Martyrs, close to the spot where they were burned at the stake. Witch Trials: 4 Real Medical Illnesses That Were Mistaken For Witchcraft And The Devil Oct 19, 2016 12:52 PM By Elana Glowatz @ElanaGlow When authorities burned accused witches at the stake throughout history, they often thought they were performing their own version of defense against the dark arts. Why were witches burnt on a cross? I'm doing a report on religion in reference to the European witch trials, and I thought I would include a reason of why witches were burnt on a cross most of the time, but all i'm finding is lyrics to songs like, the witch is burning. religion) submitted 2 months ago * by assumedaxemurderer I stumbled upon an old misfortunate misunderstanding while figuring out a mental illness solution - it was a huge misunderstanding. in the adventure that they admitted it they were burned on the stake. Her breathing was shallow and the peripheral pulses were feeble. That was the fate of the women and men sentenced to death for the crime of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts. They used several different types of penalties, but they were very likely to end with death. In Colonial America, those found "guilty" of witchcraft were usually hanged, however a person thought to be a witch and who was subsequently convicted as such were far better off than those in Europe who were burned at the stake while the whole village watched. kinda of like when christians were burning hundreds of women alive because they thought they were "witches. The Witches of Warboys were Alice Samuel and her family, who were accused of, and executed for witchcraft between 1589 and 1593 in the village of Warboys, in the fens of England. Why were the American colonies unhappy with the British government? By the 1770’s, Great Britain had established a number of colonies in North America. And why were so many innocent people were killed in Salem when they were or accused of being witches. both way no more. The witch: supernaturally powerful. By Tim Harford. The tiny town of Ellwangen, Germany, burned 393 witches from 1611 to 1618, more than Spain and Portugal combined ever executed. Contrary to popular belief, the Salem witches were not burned at the stake. Puritans drag out feral woman (witch). Anna Roleffes, better known as Tempel Anneke was one of the last witches to be executed in Braunschweig. In some cases of burning at the stake, mechanisms were provided to shorten the victim’s suffering. This new knowledge makes sense to me and now, suddenly, I am starting to understand why I am the way I am. Across the 17th and 18th centuries, it is known more than 3800 suspected witches were strangled, hanged, drowned or burned at the stake. And so many women were persecuted not just for practicing folk medicine and paganism but for just being women. " The most common form of execution, though, was hanging. The Burning of the Witches, April 30 Contributed by Petr Chudoba: On the evening of April 30th, Czechs gather to build a bonfire and prepare an effigy of the witch that kept winter around so long. Why Were Witches Burned.